By Paul F. State
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Extra resources for A Brief History of Ireland
Commoners were freemen who owned their own land and possessed full legal rights. Freemen also included the professional classes (áes dána, “men of art”)—lawyers, poets, priests, genealogists, musicians, artists, physicians, and certain skilled tradesmen such as blacksmiths. They were allowed the freedom to leave their own túatha and travel anywhere in Ireland. Equality existed across society’s upper echelons— a chief poet (ollam) and, later, a Christian bishop held equal status with a king. Complex subdivisions of each class based on property qualifications were maintained by the lawyers.
461 or 493), tells us little about his life, but the little he does tell forms the only basis on which to trace a biographical sketch, because no other primary sources exist. He wrote two works: his Confession (Confessio), a spiritual biography and vindication of his mission; and Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus (Epistola), a letter of protest against enslavement of some of his new converts. Patrick was born in the village of Bannauem Taberniae in Roman Britain, the son of Calpurnius, a deacon.
Individuals may have arrived also, becoming chiefs of resident local groups by seizing power or gaining control through influence or trade. E. the Celts were well established in Ireland. Their beliefs and institutions would dominate life on the island for the next 1,000 years, with traces of their ways surviving among the Irish-speaking population today. The Celts settled in isolated rural homesteads of a type unique to Ireland. The rath (also known as a dun, lios, or cathair) consisted of a 11 A Brief History of Ireland Táin Bó Cuailgne T he Táin Bó Cuailgne (pronounced Thaw-in Bow Koo-il-nj; The Cattle Raid of Cooley) is the central tale of the Ulster Cycle (formerly known as the Red Branch Cycle), a saga that constitutes one of the four great cycles that have survived of ancient Irish mythological tales.
A Brief History of Ireland by Paul F. State