By Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen
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Additional info for An Introduction to Functional Grammar
63). For * This was true of the earlier editions also. But there the grammar was presented in the form of structure, whereas in this edition we have introduced the category of system into the ongoing account. 31 32 function – rank matrix ideational interpersonal textual clause group/ phrase word morphene least delicate median most delicate stratification – instantiation matrix potential subpotential/ instance type instance context function – rank matrix ideational interpersonal textual clause semantics group/ phrase word morphene least delicate median most delicate lexicogrammar phonology phonetics ideational interpersonal textual Fig.
1, p. 524). 2 The lexico-grammar cline We have stressed the unity of lexis and grammar, as the two poles of a single cline, or continuum (Figure 2-6). lexico-grammar (stratum of wording) grammar (closed systems, general in meaning; structure) Fig. 2-6 lexis (open sets, specific in meaning; collocation) The lexico-grammar cline Because the two ends of the continuum are organized differently, when it came to describing them different techniques evolved: dictionary and thesaurus for lexis (Halliday, in press; Landau, 1989: Chapter 2, McArthur, 1986), the ‘grammar book’ (typically, in the European tradition, syntactic constructions and morphological paradigms) for the grammar.
Here 40 Towards a grammatical analysis = national ≠ personal country = land Pretoria = soil bushveld tree compatriots jacaranda flower grass mimosa legend: = synonyms ≠ antonyms hyponyms meronyms complex relationships [here: persons of same country; things that grow in soil; flowering trees] Fig. 2-1 Some lexical patterns in the Mandela extract (note shift in sense of land: 1 = country; 2 = soil) speaker speech roles PERSON addressee other roles Fig. 2-2 The system of PERSON singular NUMBER plural Fig.
An Introduction to Functional Grammar by Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday, Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen